Paper online (Heliyon) on crumple-formed materials

Hanaor, D., Flores Johnson, E.A., Wang, S., Quach, S., Dela-Torre, K.N., Gan, Y., Shen, L. (2017) Mechanical properties in crumple-formed paper derived materials subjected to compression. Heliyon. 3 (2017) e00329.
[DOI][PDF:047_Heliyon_2017]

Abstract: The crumpling of precursor materials to form dense three dimensional geometries offers an attractive route towards the utilisation of minor-value waste materials. Crumple-forming results in a mesostructured system in which mechanical properties of the material are governed by complex cross-scale deformation mechanisms. Here we investigate the physical and mechanical properties of dense compacted structures fabricated by the confined uniaxial compression of a cellulose tissue to yield crumpled mesostructuring. A total of 25 specimens of various densities were tested under compression. Crumple formed specimens exhibited densities in the range 0.8–1.3 g cm−3, and showed high strength to weight characteristics, achieving ultimate compressive strength values of up to 200 MPa under both quasi-static and high strain rate loading conditions and deformation energy that compares well to engineering materials of similar density. The materials fabricated in this work and their mechanical attributes demonstrate the potential of crumple-forming approaches in the fabrication of novel energy-absorbing materials from low-cost precursors such as recycled paper. Stiffness and toughness of the materials exhibit density dependence suggesting this forming technique further allows controllable impact energy dissipation rates in dynamic applications.

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